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Modernisation of T-64B Battle Tanks The Kharkiv Morozov Machine Building Design Bureau (KMDB) has developed design documentation, has manufactured and successfully tested a prototype of upgraded T-64B (BM Bulat) battle tank in order to enhance its combat and technical characteristics up to the level of modern tanks.

The modernisation covers three key areas:

  • Mobility (modernisation of the power pack in order to enhance mobility)
  • Protection (modernisation of the protection in order to reduce vulnerability to attacks of the up-to-date anti-tank weapons)
  • Firepower (modernisation of the weapons-and-fire control system in order to increase the efficiency of fire)

Main Characteristics of the Upgraded BM Bulat Battle Tank

Parameter description Parameter value
Combat weight (t)
45
Crew
3
Power-to-weight ratio (hp/t)
18,9
Ground pressure (kgf/cm2)
0.98
Operating temperature range (degrees)
-40 to +55
Centigrade Gradient (degrees)
30
Side slope (degrees)
25
Trench (m)
2.85
Vertical obstacle (m)
0.8
Deep fording without preparation (m)
1.8
Deep fording with preparation (m)
5.0
Gun
Model
125 smoothbore (KBA3 or 2A46M-1)
Caliber (mm)
125
Coaxial machine gun
Model
KT-7.62 or PKT
Caliber (mm)
7.62
Anti-aircraft machine gun system
Type
self-contained, can be fired from within the safety of the turret under complete armour protection, stabilised in the vertical axis
Anti-aircraft machine gun system sight
PZU-7
Anti-aircraft machine gun
Model
KT-12.7 or NSVT-12.7
Caliber (mm)
12.7

Mobility

In order to increase mobility, the vehicle is fitted with an enhanced power pack. The new power pack contains a 850 hp 5TDFM engine, which is a forced version of the 5TDF engine with power output being increased.

Installation of the 5TDFM engine requires replacement of the original air cleaner with a new one and re-designing of the exhaust system.

TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE T-64B BATTLE TANK BEFORE AND AFTER MODERNISATION OF ITS POWER PACK

Parameter description Parameter value
T-64B BM BULAT
General vehicle characteristics
Weight (t)
40.6 (42.5 - T-64BV)
45
Power-to-weight ratio (hp/t)
17.2 (16.5 - -64BV)
18.9
Power pack
Engine
Type
Two-stroke, five-cylinder diesel with gas turbine supercharging, liquid-cooled, with horizontal placement of cylinders and boxing pistons
Model
5TDF
5TDFM
Maximum power output (hp)
700
850 (1000 - 6TD-1)
Engine speed at maximum power output (rpm)
2800
2800
Specific fuel consumption at maximum power output (g/hp-h)
178

160 (158 - 6TD-1)

Engine length (mm)
1413
1413
Engine width (mm)
955
955
Engine height (mm)
581
581
Engine weight (dry) (kg)
1040
1040
Air supply system
Type
Two-stage system with ejection-type removal of dust: the first stage - bunker with inertial grid; the second stage - cyclone-type air cleaner (without cassettes)
Air cleaner maintenance rate (km)
350
400
Compressor
Type
Piston-type three-stage two-cylinder air-cooled compressor
Model
AK-150SV
Operational pressure (kg/cm2)
135
165
Capacity (m3/h)
2.4
Transmission
Gearbox
Type
Planetary gearbox with frictional switching-on and hydraulic control
Quantity (pcs)
2
Number of gears
7 forward gears + 1 reverse gear

Operational characteristics

Parameter description Parameter value
T-64B BM BULAT
Fuel consumption per hour while on the move (lt/h)
104
113
Fuel consumption per kilometre
4.6
4.06
Fuel capacity (lt)
1270
1270
Average speed (km/h)
30
37
Cruising range (km)
306
385

The modernisation is carried out by means of replacement of the 5TDF engine with a 5TDFM engine, installation of a new air cleaner with increased engine-feeding air flow and re-designing of the exhaust system.

To modernise the power pack of the BM Bulat tank by means of installation of a 5TDFM engine, the following is required:

  • 5TDFM engine 1 set
  • Air cleaner 1 set
  • Spare parts and tools 1 set

 

BM BULAT (Modernisation of T-64B Battle Tanks)

BM BULAT

BM BULAT

   -

Rubber Pads for the BM Bulat Tank

The SE KMDB has developed a design of rubber pads, manufactured the rubber pads and tested them on the tracks of the BM Bulat tank and its versions. No re-designing of the track components is required.

The rubber pads with fasteners are to be supplied separately.

   

Modernisation of the armament-and-fire control system

When modernised, the armament-and-fire control system of the BM BULAT MBT has better characteristics than the armament-and-fire control system of the T-80UD MBT.

Scope of Modernisation

Enhancement of combat characteristics is achieved by the installation of the following instruments and systems:

  • Gunner's 1G46M sight
  • Gunner's TO1-KO1ER night sighting system (Ukrainian-made). It is possible to install the Buran-Catherine thermal imager instead of the TO1-KO1ER system
  • 1V528-1 tank ballistic computer
  • Some instruments and units of the 2E42M main armament stabiliser
  • PNK-5SR observation and sighting system
  • PZU-7 anti-aircraft machine gun system sight
  • 1ETs29M anti-aircraft machine gun system control system
  • TAKO-621 guided weapon system

Modernisation of the armament-and-fire control system results in the following combat characteristics

GUNNER

Parameter description
Parameter value
T-64B BM Bulat
Effective fiing range (m)
  • by day
1700 to 2000
2300 to 2500
  • at night
400 to 600
1200 to 1500
Hit probability of the guided missile
  • at range of 4,000 m
0.8
0.8
  • at range of 5,000 m
-
0.8
Probability of trustworthy target ranging (target of the TANK type) by means of laser range-finder at ranges of
  • 500 to 2,500 m
0.9
0.9
  • 2,500 to 3,000 m
0.7
0.9
  • 3,000 to 4,000 m
0.5
0.9
  • if screening objects are available
0.5 (manual selection)
0.8 (automatic selection)
Systematic ranging error (m)
25
25

COMMANDER

Parameter description
Parameter value
T-64B BM Bulat
Target detection range (m):
  • by day
2,000
4,000
  • at night
400
800
Error of target designation to the gunner
< 40
< 4
Effective firing range in the override mode:
  • by day
Firing the main gun or coaxial machine gun from the commander's station is not envisaged
1,200-1,500
  • at night
800-1,000
Firing at ground and air targets from the anti-aircraft machine gun in the stabilised mode on the move

no
In the 'AAMG-AUTO' mode by using the TKN-4SR sight
Automatic introduction of angles of sight (PNK-4, PNK-5)
no
yes

The above-mentioned systems have the following main characteristics:

Parameter description Parameter value
Gunner's 1G46M primary sight:

target detection range (m)

5000

field of view (degrees)

20-4.5

magnification

2.7 - 12 (zooming)

head mirror stabilisation error (mrad)

0.2

stabilised line-of-sight drift speed, with allowing for the semi-automatic drift compensation system (mrad/min)

2.0 (1G46M)

laser range-finder wave length (mkm)

1.06

measured ranges (m)

400-5,000

probability of trustworthy measurement of distance to a target of the TANK type

0.9

systematic ranging error (m)

25

missile guidance capability

available (laser beam-based)

built-in test equipment

available

increase of stability of output parameters of the 1G46M due to availability of automatic thermal compensation of the output parameters

 

increase of aiming accuracy and decrease of shot preparation time due to availability of automatic drift compensation

 

improvement of maintainability and protection against destruction due to modular design and reduction of the outlet window size by twice

 
Gunner's TO1-KO1ER night sighting system (Ukrainian-made TPN-4ER sight):
visibility range in the passive mode at natural night illumination of 3-510-3 lx (m)
1400
line-of-sight stabilisation:  
  • in azimuth

automatic

  • in elevation

manual, depending on the value in the information eyepiece

introduction of:
  • angles of sight

digital-and-analogue

  • lateral lead angles

automatic for all ranges with allowance for deviation of the firing conditions from the normal ones, individual jump angles and geometrical parallax between the main gun, machine gun and sight

1V528-12 tank ballistic computer:
type
digital-and-analogue
calculation of angles of sight and lead angles for firing the main gun and coaxial machine gun
automatic calculation for all ranges with allowance for the deviations of the firing conditions from the normal ones, jump and throw-off angles specific to the barrel and geometrical parallax between the gun, machine gun and sight
2E42M main armament stabiliser:
drives:
  • in azimuth
electromechanical
  • in elevation
electrohydraulical
mean error of stabilisation (mrad)
  • in azimuth

0.4

  • in elevation

0.3

change-over speed of turret traversing (degrees/s)

40-5

Commander's PNK-4SR observation and sighting system:
type
combined day/night
target detection range (m)
  • by day
4,000
  • at night at natural night illumination of 3-5·10-3 lx in the passive
800
  • field-of-view stabilisation
in vertical plane
  • stabilisation accuracy (mrad)
0.3
magnification
  • day channel
1; 7.8
  • night channel
PZU-7 anti-aircraft machine gun system sight
field of view (degrees)
50
magnification
1.2
1ETs29 anti-aircraft machine gun system control system
modes of operation

stabilised observation (together with TKN-4SR sight)

 

AAMG-AUTO - anti-aircraft machine gun system is stabilised in the vertical plane with the aid of the TKN-4SR sight

 

AAMG-SEMIAUTO - together with PZU-7 sight

TAKO-621 guided weapon system
  Control system based on a laser beam with the missile automatically keeping to the centre of the beam
firing ranges (m)
100 to 5,000
hit probability:
  • at ranges up to 4,000 m
0.9
  • at range of 5,000 m
0.8
   

Protection

Increase of protection level of T-64B tank is ensured by means of installation of an additional protection package on the hull and turret of the tank.

Additional Protection Package of the Tank

Purpose

The additional protection package is intended to considerably increase the tank's protection level against chemical energy attack weapons and kinetic energy attack weapons (armour-piercing fin-stabilised discarding sabot ammunition) at minimum possible increase of the tank weight.

Components of the package

The additional protection package comprises passive (add-on) armour protection and built-in explosive reactive armour (ERA). The explosive reactive armour consists of nose module and side skirts installed on the tank hull, as well as modular sections placed along the outer perimeter of the front and side parts of the turret, and containers installed on the turret roof.

Each section of the explosive reactive armour and the containers installed on the turret roof contain explosive reactive armour panels.

Efficiency

Installation of the additional protection package results in increase of protection level of the BM Bulat tank:

  • against chemical attack weapons - by a factor of 2.2
  • against kinetic attack weapons - by a factor of 1.9

The additional protection package enables the tank to be protected against the following destruction weapons:

  • antitank hand grenades and projectiles fired from hand-held and heavy grenade launchers and recoilless guns
  • against anti-tank guided missiles such as TOW-2, Milan, and Shturm-S
  • against shaped charge projectiles fired from 125-mm smoothbore tank guns (ZBK-14(14M), ZBK-18)
  • against armour-piercing fin-stabilised discarding sabot projectiles fired from 125 mm smoothbore tank guns (ZBM-22, ZBM-26, ZBM-42

Technical characteristics

The weight of the additional protection package together with mounting and fastening parts and with explosive reactive armour panels is 3,500 kilogrammes.

The time required for installation of the set of explosive reactive armour panesls on one tank by efforts of its crew is 5.5 to 6 hours.

The explosive reactive armour panels installed on the tank do not require any special maintenance while the tank is in service.

The work on fitting the tank with the additional protection package does not require any non-standard technological equipment or contrivances of highly skilled specialists.

The following is required for modernisation of the armoured protection of the BM Bulat tank:

  • Front protection module of the hull nose
  • Parts and sub-assemblies of additional armoured protection of the turret
  • Parts and sub-assemblies required for modernisation of the fenders
  • Side skirts and shields of the hull
  • Explosive reactive armour panels of the Nozh type

Diagram of enhancement of protection of the hull of upgraded BM Bulat tankSide skirt with ERA

Diagram of enhancement of protection of the hull of upgraded BM Bulat tank
Measures Increase of resistance
to APFSDS to HEAT

Installation of add-on armour and ERA

190% H1

220% H1

Installation of side skirts with ERA

280% H2

220% H2

Note: APFSDS - armour-piercing fin-stabilised discarding sabot projectile; HEAT- high-explosive anti-tank projectile.

Diagram of enhancement of of protection of the turret of upgraded BM Bulat tank

Diagram of enhancement of of protection of the turret of upgraded BM Bulat tank

Add-on armour is installed on the front and side parts of the turret.

ERA is installed on the front and side parts of the turret as well as on the turret roof.

Measures Increase of resistance
to APFSDS to HEAT

Installation of add-on armour and ERA

190% H1

220% H1

  BM BULAT

Fire Suppression System

In order to increase protection of the BM Bulat tanks and their crews in case of a fire in the tank's fighting compartment or power pack compartment, the tank is fitted with a quick-action fire suppression system, which reduces the response time in the crew compartment down to 150 ms, this resulting in a 20% decrease of no-restoration losses.

Components of the fire suppression system:

  • optical sensors and heat sensors
  • bottles with fire extinguishing mixture
  • control equipment
 

Fire Suppression System

Fire Suppression System

Fire Suppression System

Fire Suppression System

Fire Suppression System

Additional historical data: 

The T-64 Main Battle Tank Upgrade

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